Strokes caused by people with high blood pressure, can be prevented by lowering the blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured as systolic (pressure when blood is expelled out of the heart, when contracting), and diastolic (pressure between contractions). People with a healthy blood pressure are at lower risk for strokes than people with a high blood pressure. High blood pressure contributes to atherosclerosis and blood clot formation.
Homocysteine is an amino acid derivative that can damage blood vessels. High levels of homocysteine are associated with higher stroke risks and recurrence. Disrupts endothelial tissues and stops the growth of new endothelial cells and then contributes to atherosclerotic plaque formation. High levels of Homocysteine disrupt the function of brain cells and their survival.
C-reactive is a protein in the blood that works with the level of systemic inflammation. This protein is produced in the liver and its growth rate is regulated by pro-inflammatory proteins, this becomes elevated in people with inflammation, infection and tissue damage.
Fibrinogen is a component in blood that helps with clotting/coagulation. High levels of this protein are associated with cerebrovascular disease.
LDL is all over the body and important for cellular function. Cholesterol is carried to and from cells by lipoproteins. LDL “bad cholesterol” contributes to the build-up of plaque in arterial walls. High level of HDL “good cholesterol” helps to reduce the risk of stroke or cerebrovascular disease.
- Insulin resistance/Glucose tolerance:
Insulin signals cells to take up glucose from the blood. People with diabetes have abnormal sugar levels in the blood. Insulin resistance occurs when the levels are normal, but the ability to regulate blood sugar is impaired and therefore the blood sugar levels are high.
Sleep apnea is people who suffer from periodic breathing lapses during sleep. This is when the upper airway collapses for intermittent periods and makes the person gasp, or choke during night-time breathing. This also deprives them of oxygen during sleep, and is also associated with inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. Sleep apnea may increase the risk of higher blood clots and strokes.